Thursday, July 26, 2012

Clans of the Cherokee, part 4 -- The Deer Clan

As a Cherokee, if your mother was of the Ahni Kawi, the Deer Clan, then you were of the Deer Clan and with that membership came tribal responsibilities.  You were expected to be the keeper of the deer and would be taught the deer medicines, taboos, and rituals.  You were taught to respect the deer and care for it even though you were also taught that the deer provided sustenance for you and your family and the tribe.  You were taught, for instance, that before killing a deer, you should apologize to the deer for taking its life and explain why you were doing so.  These prayers or apologies were directed toward “Awi Usdi”, “Little Deer”, the deer spirit protector.  Little Deer was the protector of the deer.  If a hunter killed a deer needlessly and without asking the Deer Spirit's pardon, Little Deer would give the hunter rheumatism so that he could no longer hunt.  You were expected to excel as a hunter and tracker and would be taught tanning and to be a seamer.
You were expected to be a fast runner and would be chosen to be a foot messenger in your village to deliver messages from village to village or person to person.

Cherokee spiritual development had seven levels.  Each clan was responsible for one level of this development, known as “Ahni Kutani”, or the achievement of spiritual balance.  The Ahni Kawi represented the “balance between the spiritual forces that shaped and guided the human spirit on its journey and development through life in preparation for entry into the spirit world.”   Of course, being a member of the Ahni Kawi didn’t mean you were limited to that level of development, just that your clan was responsible for that level and its rituals and ceremonies.  But all clans participated in each of the clan’s ceremonies equally and strove to achievement all seven levels of development in their life.

The Clan Color for the Ani Kawi is Brown and their wood is Oak.  Flag is purple with yellow stars.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Tar Baby vs the Tar Wolf

This week I would like to offer two children’s stories for your amusement.  The first story was recorded by James Mooney who lived with the Cherokee in the late 1800’s and collected many of the Cherokee children's stories from the elders and old medicine men.  This story is named “The Rabbit and the Tar Wolf.”

“Once upon a time there was such a severe drought that all streams of water and all lakes were dried up. In this emergency the beasts assembled together to devise means to procure water. It was proposed by one to dig a well. All agreed to do so except the hare. She refused because it would soil her tiny paws. The rest, however, dug their well and were fortunate enough to find water. The hare beginning to suffer and thirst, and having no right to the well, was thrown upon her wits to procure water. She determined, as the easiest way, to steal from the public well. The rest of the animals, surprised to find that the hare was so well supplied with water, asked her where she got it. She replied that she arose betimes in the morning and gathered the dewdrops. However the wolf and the fox suspected her of theft and hit on the following plan to detect her: They made a wolf of tar and placed it near the well.
“On the following night the hare came as usual after her supply of water. On seeing the tar wolf she demanded who was there. Receiving no answer she repeated the demand, threatening to kick the wolf if he did not reply. She receiving no reply kicked the wolf, and by this means adhered to the tar and was caught. When the fox and wolf got hold of her the consulted what it was best to do with her. One proposed cutting her head off. This the hare protested would be useless, as it had often been tried without hurting her. Other methods were proposed for dispatching her, all of which she said would be useless. At last it was proposed to let her loose to perish in a thicket. Upon this the hare affected great uneasiness and pleaded hard for life. Her enemies, however, refused to listen and she was accordingly let loose. As soon, however, as she was out of reach of her enemies she gave a whoop, and bounding away she exclaimed: 'This is where I live.'"

Now I would like to give you another story recorded by Joel Chandler Harris.  After the Civil war, Joel Chandler Harris, a writer for an Atlanta newspaper, collected stories from the Blacks and published them as “Uncle Remus” stories.  These stories were brought to life in the Disney movie “Song of the South” in the 1950’s.  Those of you old enough to remember the movie will probably remember the story as well, it’s known as “Brer Rabbit and the Tar Baby”.

"Didn't the fox never catch the rabbit, Uncle Remus?" asked the little boy the next evening.
"He come mighty nigh it, honey, sho's you born--Brer Fox did. One day atter Brer Rabbit fool 'im wid dat calamus root, Brer Fox went ter wuk en got 'im some tar, en mix it wid some turkentime, en fix up a contrapshun w'at he call a Tar-Baby, en he tuck dish yer Tar-Baby en he sot 'er in de big road, en den he lay off in de bushes fer to see what de news wuz gwine ter be. En he didn't hatter wait long, nudder, kaze bimeby here come Brer Rabbit pacin' down de road--lippity-clippity, clippity -lippity--dez ez sassy ez a jay-bird. Brer Fox, he lay low. Brer Rabbit come prancin' 'long twel he spy de Tar-Baby, en den he fotch up on his behime legs like he wuz 'stonished. De Tar Baby, she sot dar, she did, en Brer Fox, he lay low.
"`Mawnin'!' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee - `nice wedder dis mawnin',' sezee.
"Tar-Baby ain't sayin' nuthin', en Brer Fox he lay low.
"`How duz yo' sym'tums seem ter segashuate?' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee.
"Brer Fox, he wink his eye slow, en lay low, en de Tar-Baby, she ain't sayin' nuthin'.
"'How you come on, den? Is you deaf?' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee. 'Kaze if you is, I kin holler louder,' sezee.
"Tar-Baby stay still, en Brer Fox, he lay low.
"'You er stuck up, dat's w'at you is,' says Brer Rabbit, sezee, 'en I;m gwine ter kyore you, dat's w'at I'm a gwine ter do,' sezee.
"Brer Fox, he sorter chuckle in his stummick, he did, but Tar-Baby ain't sayin' nothin'.
"'I'm gwine ter larn you how ter talk ter 'spectubble folks ef hit's de las' ack,' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee. 'Ef you don't take off dat hat en tell me howdy, I'm gwine ter bus' you wide open,' sezee.
"Tar-Baby stay still, en Brer Fox, he lay low.
"Brer Rabbit keep on axin' 'im, en de Tar-Baby, she keep on sayin' nothin', twel present'y Brer Rabbit draw back wid his fis', he did, en blip he tuck 'er side er de head. Right dar's whar he broke his merlasses jug. His fis' stuck, en he can't pull loose. De tar hilt 'im. But Tar-Baby, she stay still, en Brer Fox, he lay low.
"`Ef you don't lemme loose, I'll knock you agin,' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee, en wid dat he fotch 'er a wipe wid de udder han', en dat stuck. Tar-Baby, she ain'y sayin' nuthin', en Brer Fox, he lay low.
"`Tu'n me loose, fo' I kick de natal stuffin' outen you,' sez Brer Rabbit, sezee, but de Tar-Baby, she ain't sayin' nuthin'. She des hilt on, en de Brer Rabbit lose de use er his feet in de same way. Brer Fox, he lay low. Den Brer Rabbit squall out dat ef de Tar-Baby don't tu'n 'im loose he butt 'er cranksided. En den he butted, en his head got stuck. Den Brer Fox, he sa'ntered fort', lookin' dez ez innercent ez wunner yo' mammy's mockin'-birds.
"`Howdy, Brer Rabbit,' sez Brer Fox, sezee. `You look sorter stuck up dis mawnin',' sezee, en den he rolled on de groun', en laft en laft twel he couldn't laff no mo'. `I speck you'll take dinner wid me dis time, Brer Rabbit. I done laid in some calamus root, en I ain't gwineter take no skuse,' sez Brer Fox, sezee."
Here Uncle Remus paused, and drew a two-pound yam out of the ashes.
"Did the fox eat the rabbit?" asked the little boy to whom the story had been told.
"Dat's all de fur de tale goes," replied the old man. "He mout, an den agin he moutent. Some say Judge B'ar come 'long en loosed 'im - some say he didn't. I hear Miss Sally callin'. You better run 'long."

If these two stories sound remarkably similar, it is no coincidence.  Before the Cherokee were relocated to Oklahoma in 1838, many were plantation owners and owned slaves.  Although Mr. Harris attributed the stories to Africa, I think the stories of “Uncle Remus” had to have been influenced by the old Cherokee children’s stories.

You may read more of the Cherokee stories in “Myths of the Cherokee” by James Mooney.   And the stories of Uncle Remus can be found in “Uncle Remus and Brer Rabbit” by Joel Chandler Harris.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Build Your Dream Home in One Day!

My wife and I just moved into our dream house in the mountains!  It has taken us eleven years to build it.  Each year we did a project.  For instance, the first year we bought the property and drilled for water.  One year we put in a septic system.  One year we built the garage.  Another year we put in a solar-electric system since the property is too remote to be on the grid!  It has been fun (and sometimes a little trying!) but this year we finished the projects, retired from our jobs and moved in permanently!

What if we were Cherokee and lived 1,000 years ago?  How would we have built our home then?  Here is an excerpt from "The Cherokee People", by Thomas E. Mails:

"All of the men from a village would gather to build houses. A complete good-sized dwelling could be erected and finished in a day. They would mark the dimensions of the house on the ground, and then the timbers were cut and marked. They used plummet stones suspended on thongs to align the walls. They set strong poles deep in the ground at regular intervals and the poles extended above for six to seven feet. The posts were usually dried locust and sassafras for durability and endurance. The posts were notched at the top and wall plates were laid on top of the notches. A large post, also notched, was set in the center of each gable. The ridgepole, which ran the length of the house, was tied at regular intervals using bark strips or splinters of white oak or hickory. The finishing ceiling consisted of matlike layers of split saplings or bundles consisting of three large winter canes that were tied together place above the rafters or saplings. The roof was then shingled with the bark of pine or cypress.
photo also from: "The Cherokee People", by Thomas E. Mails - late pre-historic dwelling

"Exterior wall spaces were filled with vertically placed split sticks and poles that were tied together and then strengthened by horizontally placed saplings. These were then plastered both inside and out, with clay tempered grass.

"The windows were a foot square used for ventilation. Doors were of poplar planks covered with straps of shaved and wet buffalo hides, which tightened and strengthened when dry.
Inside the house were little more than stools, storage chests, and three-foot-high broad beds. The beds were made of boards and white-oak foundations and cane-splinter mattresses covered with bear, buffalo, mountain lion, elk and deerskins with fur/hair left on.”

Oh, well!  As I sit on my patio staring across the valley at the beautiful Sangre de Christo mountains while the little Hummingbirds buzz around and the Meadow Larks sing in the distance, I have to wonder if the Cherokee appreciated their “built-in-a-day” house as much as we appreciate ours!